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PREFACE@ (1940)

Scouting has been described by more than one enthusiast as a revolution in education.
It is not that.
It is merely a suggestion thrown out at a venture for a jolly outdoor recreation which has been found to form also a practical aid to education.
It may be taken to be complementary to school training, and capable of filling up certain chinks unavoidable in the ordinary school curriculum. It is, in a word, a school of citizenship through woodcraft.
The subjects of instruction with which it fills the chinks are individual efficiency through development of\
Character,
Health, and
Handicraft in the individual, and in
Citizenship through his employment of this efficiency in Service.
These are applied in three grades of progressive training for Wolf@Cubs, Scouts, and Rovers.@Their development, as this book will show you, is mainly got through camping and backwoods activities, which are enjoyed as much by the Instructor as by the boy; indeed, the instructors may aptly be termed leaders or elder brothers since they join in the fun, and the boys do the educating themselves.
This is perhaps why Scouting is called a revolution in education.
The fact is true, however, that it aims for a different point than is possible in the average school training.@It aims to teach the boys how to live, not merely how to make a living. There lies a certain danger in inculcating in the individual the ambition to win prizes and scholarships, and holding up to him as success the securing of pay, position, and power, unless there is a corresponding instruction in service for others.
With this inculcation of self-interest into all grades of society it is scarcely surprising that we have as a result a country divided against itself, with self-seeking individuals in unscrupulous rivalry with one another for supremacy, and similarly with cliques and political parties, religious sects and social classes, all to the detriment of national interests and unity.
Therefore the aim of the Scout training is to replace Self with Service, to make the lads individually efficient, morally and physically, with the object of using that efficiency for the service of the community.
I don't mean by this the mere soldiering and sailoring services; we have no military aim or practice in our Movement; but I mean the ideals of service for their fellow-men.@In other words, we aim for the practice of Christianity in their everyday life and dealings, and not merely the profession of its theology on Sundays.
The remarkable growth of the Scout Movement in the thirty-one years of its existence has surprised its promoters as much as its outside sympathisers.@Starting from one little camp, of which this book was the outcome, in 1908, the Movement has grown and expanded automatically without any Government subsidy, till to-day (1939) we have 460,234 members in the United@Kingdom and 1,009,671 in the Empire.
This points to two things: first, the attraction that Scouting has for the boys; secondly, the volume of that innate patriotism which underlies the surface among the men and women of out nation in spite of the misdirection of their education towards Self.@Over 79,000 of these form a force of voluntary workers, from every grade of society, giving their time and energies for no reward other than the satisfaction of helping the boys to become good citizens.
The teaching is by example, and the boys are quick to learn service where they have before them this practical exposition of it on the part of their Scoutmasters.@The effects of this training where it has been in competent hands have exceeded all expectation in making happy, healthy, helpful citizens.
The aim of these leaders has been to help not merely the promising boys, but also, and more especially, the duller boy.@We want to give him some of the joy of life and at the same time some of the attributes and some of the opportunities that his better-off brother gets, so that at least he shall have his fair chance in life.
Foreign countries have been quick to recognize the uses of Scouting, and have in their turn adopted and developed the training exactly on the lines given in this book.
As a consequence there is now a widespread brotherhood of Boy Scouts about the world numbering at present some 3,305,149 members, all working for the same ideal under the same promise and law, all regarding each other as brothers, and getting to know each other through interchange of correspondence and personal visits on a considerable scale.
In needs no great imagination to foresee vast international possibilities as the outcome of this fast-growing brotherhood in the near future.@The League of Nations may be for the moment, as its critics term it, a soulless legislative machine; but this growing spirit of personal friendship and wide-minded goodwill among the future citizens of the nations behind it may not only give it that soul, but may prove a still stronger insurance against the danger of international war on the future.@This may seem but a wild dream, but so it would have been a wild dream had anyone imagined thirty years ago that this little book was going to result in a Brotherhood of over three million Boy Scouts to-day and a corresponding sisterhood of some 1,444,000 Girl Guides.
But such is the case.
And such vision is not beyond the range of possibility, if men and women come in to take their share in the promotion of the work.
The co-operation of tine sea insects has brought about the formation of coral islands.@No enterprise is too big where there is goodwill and co-operation in carrying it out.@Every day we are turning away boys anxious to join the Movement, because we have not the men or women to take them in hand.@There is a vast reserve of loyal patriotism and Christion spirit lying dormant in our nation to-day, mainly because it sees no direct opportunity for expressing itself.@Here in this joyous brotherhood there is vast opportunity open to all in a happy work that shows results under your hands and a work that is worth while because it gives every man his chance of service for his fellow-men and for God.
Old Socrates spoke truly when he said, gNo man goeth about a more goodly purpose than he who is mindful of the right upbringing not only of his own, but of other men's children.h
B.-P.@.
@( SCOUTING FOR BOYS@Twenty-Eighth Edition, 1953, p21)

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Education

Since gScouting for Boysh was first written a considerable change has been effected in the administration of education in the United Kingdom, and teachers have greater encouragement to apply the training in health and character than was formerly the case.
But they are still handicapped, through no fault of their own, by large classes and the limited period of the school age, as well as (in many places) by the out-of-school environment of their pupils.@Moreover, the most important item of all, viz. : the promotion of character, though very properly advocated in the official instructions to teachers, is most difficult to carry out in practice with large numbers of scholars, since, for successful production, it needs the separate study of each individual mind and its development from within.
Similarly, education in citizenship as a subject can scarcely be considered complete unless it gives the pupil the opportunity of expressing in practice the spirit which it inculcates in theory.@And this, again, is difficult in a school.
It is for these reasons and in these directions that the Boy Scout method comes in to be a positive help to the teachers.@Sir George Newman, in his Annual Report for 1928 on The Health of the School Child, further emphasized this when he said :\
g There are still worthy people who, being ignorant of physiology, live in an unreal world and are even yet unaware that unless and until you cultivate and develop the body and brain of the child, all attempts at intellectual instruction will prove futile.@They are witness of the triumphant contribution of the Boy Scout Movement and render it lip service of praise, but they decline to learn from it.@Yet its lesson is profoundly true and full of meaning to all educationalists in this generation.@It is a lesson of physical discipline, of educational adventure, of youthful training and glad obedience ;@it is one of the wisest interpretations of that service which is perfect freedom ;@it educates by equipping the body first and drawing out its faculties and senses ;@it both harnesses and develops the boy and leads him of his own interest and desire into the path of manual work and the arts and crafts ;@it trains men not for the classroom or the pedagogue, but for life.@Thus it has become a vast health education movement, doing for the boy what the education authority all too often fails to do.@It is perhaps the greatest demonstration in practical education that the world has seen.h
Education has to be directed to meet what is needed in our nation to-day.@And, more especially, what will be needed in our nation to-morrow.@Too often have we been inclined to be content merely with improving our methods in comparison with past curricula.@To-day one of the worst faults in the nation is narrow sectional outlook ;@authorities on all hands speak of the need of cheery good-will and co-operation as the antidote to most of our troubles.
The common method of education does little in this direction.@Indeed, unless due care is taken, it holds within it a certain danger, the danger of encouraging self-interest in the boy, regardless of or even in rivalry to, the interests of others.@He is encouraged to be top of his class, to win prizes and scholarships for himself in competition with classmates, to be ambitious, to aim for the best things in life, without counterbalancing instruction in his duty to the State and in helpfulness and consideration for others.
The result is that high-brow cults, class jealousies, industrial disputes, sectarian differences, addiction to sport, political and international rivalries, all exist and have their exaggerated values because men have never been taught to look wide, to see with their neighbourfs eyes, and to use in active practice their good-will and co-operation.@This neglect is at the root of most of our troubles to-day, whether industrial, political, religious, social, or international.
It is here, again, that Scouting can come in and help with its definite training in its sense of duty and service for others.@It aims to give the boy a practical idea of the responsibilities of life that lie before him and endeavours to inculcate the practice of his religion in his everyday life and doings.
The diagram gives some of our national inefficiencies and their causes, and suggests a remedy as supplied by Scouting.

 NATIONAL INEFFICIENCIES CAUSES ORIGIN PREVENTIVE SCOUT TRAINING AS REMEDYAdditional to Scholastic Education\@a systematised development of :T. CHARACTER through\@@Good Environment@@Sense of Honour@@Sense of Duty@@Self-discipline@@Responsibility@@Resourcefulness@@Handicrafts@@God through Nature Study@@Religion in Practice@@Fair Play@@Helpfulness to Others@@Personal Service for the Country IrreligionIndisciplineWant of PatriotismSelfishnessCorruptionDisregard of othersCruelty Indifference toHigher Con-science Want of Self-discipline T.Education inCHARACTER Crimes of ViolenceLunacyThriftlessness and Poverty Drink Show offLoafing and ShirkingLow Moral StandardsGamblingIllegitimacyDisease Self-indulgence Ill-healthSqualorInfant MortalityMental DeficiencyPhysical Deficiency Irresponsibilityand Ignoranceon part ofParents Want ofHygienic andPhysicalKnowledge U.PHTSICALHEALTH U. HEALTH Through\@@Outdoor Practices (not merely @@@Drill)@@Responsibility for own Physical@@@Development up to Standard@@Health and Hygiene in Practice
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With that key a great door may be unlocked, if it js only to admit fresh air and sunshine into lives that were otherwise grey.  But generally it can do more than this.  The heroes of the wild, the frontiersmen and explorers, the rovers of the seas, the airmen of the clouds are Pied Pipers to the boys.  Where they lead the boys will follow, and these will dance to their tune when it sings the song of manliness and pluck, of adventure and high endeavour, of efficiency and skill, of cheerful sacrifice of self for others.  There's meat in this for the boy ; there's soul in it.  Watch that lad going down the street, his eyes are looking far out.@Is his vision across the prairie or over the grey backed seas ?@At any rate it isn't here.@Don't I know it !  Have you ever seen the buffaloes roaming in Kensington Gardens past that very spot where Gil-Blas met the robbers behind the trees ?@And can't you see the smoke from the Sioux Lodges under the shadow of the Albert Memorial ?@I have seen them there these fifty years.  Through Scouting the boy has now the chance to deck himself in a frontier kit as one of the great Brotherhood of Backwoodsmen.@He can track and follow signs, he can signal, he can light his fire and build his shack and cook his grub.@He can turn his hand to many things in pioneer and camp-craft.  His Unit is a band of six, commanded by their own boy leader.@Here,s the natural gang of the boy, whether for good or for mischief.@Here's responsibility and self-discipline for the individual.@Here's esprit de corps for the honour of the Patrol as strong as any house-spirit in a public school.  To the outsider's eye the Scouts' stags are so many broomsticks.@but to the Scout they are different.@His staff, decorated with his own particular totem and signs, is typical ;@like his staff, among a mass he is an individual having his own traits, his own character, his own potentialities.  He may be one of a herd, but he has his own entity. He gets to know the joy of life through the out-of-doors.  Then there is the spiritual side.  Through sips of Nature Lore imbibed in woodland " hikes " the puny soul grows up and looks around.@The outdoors is par excellence the school for observation and for realising the wonders of a wondrous universe.  The key to successful education is not so much to teach the pupil as to get him to learn for himself.@The subject to be instilled must be made to appeal, and you must lure your fish with a succulent worm, not with a bit of hard, dry biscuit.  Our system for developing the boys is to lead them on to pass tests in various qualifications, handicrafts, etc., such as are likely to be of value to them in their future careers.@Thus we have badges for electricians, horsemen, farmers, gardeners, musicians, carpenters and so on in addition to the actual Scouts' badges of first and second class, testifying to their capabilities in swimming, pioneering, cooking, woodmanship, boat management, and other points of manliness and handiness.@We encourage personal responsibility in the boy for his own physical development and health :@and we trust in his honour and expect him to do a good turn to someone every day.  Our training is non-military :@even the ordinary drill employed by many boys' organisations being reduced to the lowest necessary limits, since drill tends to destroy individuality, and one of our main aims is to develop the personal individual character.  There is no military meaning attached to Scouting.@Peace Scouting comprises the attributes of frontiersmen if the way of resourcefulness and self-reliance and the many other qualities which make them men among men.@There is no intention of making the lads into soldiers or of teaching then bloodthirstiness.@At the same time, under g patriotism h they are taught that a citizen must be prepared to take his fair share among his fellows in the defence of the homeland against aggression in return for the safety and freedom enjoyed by him as an inhabitant.@He who sthrks and leaves this duty to others to do for him is neither playing a plucky nor a fair part.  As regards religion we are inter-denominational: we do not assume or interfere with the prerogative of parents or pastors by giving religious instruction, but we insist on the observance and practice of whatever form of religion the boy professes, and the main duty impressed upon him is the daily practice of chivalry and of helpfulness to others.  We are also non-political.@Nor do we recognize any difference in class.  The Wolf Cub training was started with the idea of meeting the smaller boyfs enthusiasm for Scouting, for catching, for catching him at the most mouldable age, and to give him a good grounding in Scout ideas before sending him up to the Scout Troop.@This scheme, where handled with understanding, has fully met its intention.@One part of gunderstanding,h however, is to realise that if you make it too full of Scout practices you have no novelty or ulterior attraction to draw the boy on, when he comes to Scout age, to go on and join the Troop.  To get the most ort of the Boy Scout training, a boy should pass progressively through the stages of Cub, Scout, Senior Scout, and Rover.  The last stage teaches the Rover to apply his Scouting to the problems of life and gives him actual practice in so doing.@ A Group is a complete unit of the four sections Wolf Cub Pack, Boy Scout Troop, Senior Scout Troop, and Rover Scout Crew.@A Group can be started without having all four sections.  To express the continuity of life in the Group, it is good to mark the progress from one section to the other by a simple ceremony.@The g Going Up g ceremony for Cubs as given in The Wolf Cubsf Handbook, is reproduced below :\  The Pack forms parade circle at one end of the clubroom, the Troop a horseshoe at the other.  The Pack does the Grand Howl.@The Cub who is going up falls out in front of the Cubmaster and repeats his Promise as a Wolf Cub, starting, gI have promised.h@He them walks round the whole Pack, shakes hands with every Cub, and returns to the centre. The Pack gives him three cheers and runs away.@The boy and the Cubmaster go to where the Scoutmaster is waiting for them.@The Cubmaster hands the boy over to the Scoutmaster, who takes him into the horseshoe and introduces him to his Patrol Leader.@The Patrol Leader takes the ex-Cub to his Patrol.  Thus, then, in each stage we have the same principle, adapted in each to the changed psychology of the pupil, i.e., in each stage we develop his     Character and Intelligence.     Handicraft and Skill.     Health and Strength.     Service for Others.  So much for the principle.  The detail of our method of training has been well summarized in the five following steps :\   Preparation\by having programme and apparatus ready.   Demonstration\showing the action and its results,   Explanation\stating how it is dome, in detail.   Imitation\the pupil doing it for himself.   Interrogation\questions by the instructor to the pupil, or vice versa.
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Results

The Boy Scout Movement has grown up of itself out of the suggestion given by this book g Scouting for Boys,h and has spread to almost every corner of the British Isles and the British Overseas Dominions and Colonies, as well as to most foreign countries.
Its principles appear to appeal to boys of every class and to be adaptable to every country, and this promises a closer bond of sympathy and comradeship between Great Britain and her dependencies (as well as locally between Boers and British in South Africa, and Between French and British Canadians in Canada);@and also between the British Empire and other nations such as cannot but be conducive to peace in the world.

Very encouraging testimony comes from those in touch with Boy Scouts such as parents, pastors, school teachers, etc., as to the good and immediate effect of the training upon boys who come within its influence.
One tribute may be quoted from the late Rt. Hon. H. A. L. Fisher, Warden of New College, Oxford, and a former President of the Board of Education.
g The Boy Scout Movement,h said he, g is one of the happiest of educational discoveries, and like all great discoveries it owes its success to the fact that it is founded upon a very true appreciation of a boyfs nature ;@that it is in close contact with the real facts of human nature and is not divorced from them.
g It is very difficult for a Boy Scout to be bored ;@his education comes to him through many channels, and it comes to him in the happiest possible form.@He learns, or should learn, something of the ways and habits of birds and beasts.@He learns the elementary principles of hygiene.@He is taught something about that in the elementary school, but he learns it more effectively and in a much more practical way through Scouting.@He learns to live out of doors.@He learns the secrets of camp life.@And he learns to be adroit and to help himself and to disregard snobbish distinctions in wealth and rank, and generally to be a good comrade and fellow and respect the laws of nature.h

To this might be added many other tributes from distinguished men in all walks of life, but most striking of all has been the recognition of the value of Scout training shown since war began in 1939 ; men who have gone into the services acknowledge the value of the training they had as Scouts ; and the boys themselves have won the praise of all for their plucky behavior during invasion and the air-raids.@They were indeed PREPRED.

Organisation

For playing a great game successfully a definite organization and clear rules are essential.
Our organisation is found to work successfully, and the rules are to be found in our Policy, Organisation and Rules.@This gives full particulars of organization, and of the various Badge Tests.@The Rules are based on the experience accumulated since 1908, and, if followed in the right spirit, will help you to avoid many difficulties.
The scheme of decentralization is shown in the accompanying chart.

 GeneralCountyDistrictGroup ORGANISATION.I.H.O.CHIEF SCOUTWITHCOUNCIL AND COMMITTEEC.C.@@@@@@@@@@@@COUNTY COMMISSIONERS@@@@@@@@@@C.C.@ETC.@@@@@@@@@@(AND A.C.Cs., D.C.Cs. and Ak. Ls.)@@@@@@@@ETC.WITHCOUNTY SCOUT COUNCILD.C.@@@@@@@DISTRICT COMMISSIONERS (AND A.D.Cs)@@@@@@@D.C.@ETC.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@WITH@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ETC.LOCAL ASSOCIATION (AND DISTRICT SCOUTERSAND NON-EXECTIVE AND HONORARY RANKS)G.S.M.@@@@@@@@@@@@GROUP SCOUTMASTER@@@@@@@@@@@@G.S.M.@ETC.@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@WITH@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ETC.SCOUT GROUP@. B-P. GUILDOFOLD SCOUTS LONESCOUTSLONEROVERS DEEP-SEASCOUTS C.M. (AND A.C.Ms)WITHCUB PACKSIXERS(AND SECONDS)WITHSEXES S.M. (AND A.S.Ms)WITHSCOUT TROOP(SEA AND AIR SCOUTS)PATROL LEADERS(AND SECONDS)WITHPATROLS S.M. (AND A.S.Ms)WITHSENIOR SCOUT TROOP(SEA AND AIR SCOUTS)PATROL LEADERS(AND SECONDS)WITHPATROLS R.S.M. (AND A.R.S.L)WITHROVER CREWROVER MATES(AND SECONDS)WITHPATROLS IF DESIRED

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How to Start a Group

The first step is usually to get a number of boys to come and play games and them to talk to them on the subject of ]scouting, and to get them enthused before actually suggesting to raise a Group.
Raise a Group fund, the amount required depending on whether you have to hire a meeting-place or not, but in either case money will be wanted for training and camping equipment and some boys may have to be helped over money for camp.@Form a small Group Committee of parents and friends to help with the financial problems and to be responsible for any property.

 Remember that the boy, on joining, wants to begin gScoutingh right away ;@so donft dull his keenness, as is so often done, by too much preliminary explanation at first.@Meet his wants by games and Scouting practices, and instil elementary details bit by bit afterwards as you go along.

As far as possible Scouts provide their own uniform, earning the money for it themselves, but where this cannot be done Scoutmasters sometimes provide the Scoutfs outfit and let him pay for it in weekly instalments of a few pence.@In other cases they provide the outfit and charge the boy for hire of it, retaining the right to recall the uniform at any time should the boy prove unsatisfactory.@The boysf weekly subscriptions should pay for the hire of the headquarters.
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of the Group, and is of great assistance in deciding the general policy and activities of the whole. gBe Preparedh  The first essential for carrying out this training is to put yourself in the boyfs place, look at it from his point of view\present your subject to him as he would like to have it, and so get him to teach himself without your having to hammer it into him.  Then remember that your own character soon reflects itself in your boys.@If you are impatient they too become impatient and all goes awry.  But as you come to teach these things you will very soon find (unless you are a ready-made angel) that you are acquiring them yourself all the time.  You must gBe Preparedh for disappointments at first, though you will as often as not find them outweighed by unexpected successes.  You must from the first gBe Preparedh for the prevailing want of concentration of mind on the part of the boys, and if you then frame your teaching accordingly, I think you will have very few disappointments.@Do not expect boys to pay great attention to any one subject for very long, until you have educated them to do so.@You must meet them half-way, and not give them too long a dose of one drink.@A short, pleasing sip of one kind, and them off to another, gradually lengthening the sips till they become steady draughts.  Then a formal lecture on the subjects which you want to practice very soon palls on them, their thoughts begin to wander, and they get bored, because they have not learnt the art of switching their mind where they want it to be, and holding it there.  This making the mind amenable to the will is one of the important inner points in our training.  For this reason it is well to think out beforehand each day what you want to say on your subject\and then bring it out a bit at a time as opportunity offers\at the camp fire, or in intervals of play and practice, not in one long set address.  Frequent practical demonstrations and practices should be sandwiched in between the sections of the talks to hold the attention of the boys and to drive home your theory.  A Scoutmaster has a free hand given him to train his boys in his own way.@The proficiency badges give scope and variety for useful training, and though many a Scoutmaster may feel diffident about his power personally to give such varied instruction, he can generally obtain the temporary service of a friend or expect to help. @Proficiency Badges  These are established with a view to developing in each lad the taste for hobbies or handicrafts, one of which may ultimately give him a career and not leave him hopeless and helpless on going out into the world.  Moreover, they put into the hands of the Scoutmaster a means of encouraging the dull or backward boy\provided that the Scoutmaster uses our standard of proficiency\that standard is not so much the quality of his knowledge or skill as the amount of effort he has put into acquiring such knowledge or skill.  An understanding Scoutmaster who has made a study of his boysf psychology can thus give to the boy an encouraging handicap, such as will give the slum boy a fair start alongside his better-educated brother.@And the dull or hopeless boy can have his first win or two made easy for him so that he is led to intensify his efforts.
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Troop Meetings

You will not have much difficulty about what to do during the early months of the Troop while you are busy training the first half a dozen boys ;@the Tenderfoot and Second Class Tests will give you a programme of activities, but remember to get in as much fun of the game of Scouting as possible.@After this preliminary stage, you will have to think out what you propose doing.@Have some kind of rough plan to work to, but leave plenty of room for changes to meet altered conditions.@Thus, if you have planned an outdoor evening, and it turns to heavy rain, you want something up your sleeve ready for an indoors meeting.@Donft get caught unprepared !

As they get experience, so your Patrol Leaders in the Court of Honour will be able to help in this planning ;@they may have ideas of their own which should have full scope.@Later, it may be possible to leave most of the planning to them, but even then you should have some surprise stunt or scheme to spring on the Troop without warning.@The knowledge that you will probably suddenly produce something out of the hat, as it were, will keep them on their toes.

There is no standard form of meeting in Scouting; you have full liberty to carry out your Scouting in whatever way best suits your boys and the conditions under which you work.@The great thing is to know where you want to go, and then plan accordingly.@Suppose, for instance, that you and the Patrol Leaders feel that more knowledge of tracking is needed ;@then you could keep that subject as your main purpose for a month or so ;@not, of course, neglecting other things, but just using tracking, or whatever it is, as our main theme.

Here are some of the kinds of meetings which are possible, but this list is not exhaustive ;@it will perhaps give you some idea of the variety which Scouting offers.

 @I. EXPEDITIONS.\These can take the form of an afternoon, or whole day spent in the open, with a wide game.@(See p. 93) ;@practical Scouting, such as stalking, tracking, cooking, and so on ;@or in Nature Observation ;@or in map-reading and making.@Go through the pages of this book and make a list of other ideas of this kind ;@it will keep you busy for some time !@Another source of suggestions is contained in our Badges, such as Backwoodsman, Explorer, Forester, and Pioneer.@ @II. VISITS.\These may be to museums\perhaps to see the Patrol animals ;@or to factories to see how things are made, or to municipal and other public works, such as electricity power-stations, fire-stations, etc.@ @III. EBENING MEETINGS.\These are what we usually mean by Troop Meetings ;@They should, of course, be held out of doors whenever possible, but dark evenings make that impossible for part of the year.@Again there is no official time-table for such meetings.@There are, however, certain general principles which should be kept in min in planning indoor meetings.@The Scouts have probably been bottled up all day and will therefore need a chance of letting off steam, so see that there are some vigorous games.@(See p. 219)@Donft go on playing the same few games time after time.@Even slight variation will add keenness, but there are so many games to choose from that fre1uent repetition is unnecessary.@Every Troop finds some games which it particularly likes, but even these should not be repeated too often.@Then each Scout should have the chance of learning something new in Scouting, and so go away feeling that he has made progress.@Competitions between Patrols will keep them up to scratch and, incidentally, make sure that what was once learned has not been forgotten.@I have already mentioned surprise items arranged by you and your fellow Scouters.@A Yarn\not longer than ten minutes\is a good way to bring the meeting to a close before Prayers.@This yarn may be just of general Scouting interest, or it may prepare the way for some new kind of activity you are planning for the next meeting\this should give the Scouts something to look forward to, and perhaps prepare for, during the coming week.@ @IV. BADGE MEETINGS.\Some Troops have a special evening for working at Badges.@Or you may arrange for an instructor to take a special group of Scout for specialist badges.@ @V. SPECIAL MEETINGS.\A show of instructional and Scout films is worth arranging.@There are many nature films and films f manufacturing processes which can be hired cheaply.@Another form of special meeting might be one arranged as a Parentsf Night, to give them a chance of seeing all the Scouts in the Troop and what goes on in a Meeting.@ @VI. ENTERTAINMENTS.\These should not be thought of as merely money-making affairs, but as definite training in singing, acting, etc.@The Scouts should do as much as possible of the incidental work, such as making any properties needed, painting scenery, fixing lights, and possibly printing tickets and programmes.@
Bacon said that play-acting was one of the best means of educating children, and one can quite believe him.
It develops the natural power in them of imitation, and of wit and imagination, all of which help in the development of character ;@and at the same time lessons of history and morality can be impressed on their minds far better by their assuming the characters and acting the incidents themselves than by any amount of preaching of the same on the part of the teacher.
Plays and entertainments should also be used for giving pleasure to the other youngsters of the neighbourhood, or possibly in hospitals.@One special kind of entertainment is the Camp Fire ;@you will have these in Camp, but an occasional one during the winter months is good fun.@These will give opportunities for learning new songs, etc., in preparation for the next camping season ;@then, too, you can give time to Yarns of a longer kind than is possible in a Troop Meeting.
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Progressive Scouting

It is most important that each Scout should go steadily forward along the Scout Trail.@(See Chart.)@The early stages are the easiest and most obvious, but the problem gets more complicated as the Troop grows up ;@you will then have boys of varying ages and at different stages of Scouting.@Itfs rather like a conjuror trying to keep a whole lot of balls in the air at the same time and, in fact, if you yourself try to do all the conjuring alone there will be trouble.@The secret lies in dividing the work up amongst the Scouters of the Group and the Patrol Leaders.@The latter will be chiefly concerned in seeing that recruits get on with the Tenderfoot Tests, and that those who have been invested carry right on with Second Class work.@Too many Scouts remain Second Class, and that is one reason for boys leaving Troops ;@they get fed up with going over the same old stuff again and again.@One Scouter might concern himself with First Class Training ;@Some of this can be introduced into most Meetings ;@but he will also need special times for this important job.

Special attention must also be given to the Scouts of 15 or over who are getting to the age when they feel more grown-up.@To hold them, you must see that their needs are met.@You will have to decide whether you are going to start a separate section of Senior Scouts or whether you are going to continue to hold them in the Scout Troop.@In the latter case you or one of the Scouters might make them your, or his responsibility.@They want to feel different not only in themselves, but in the Scouting they do and the way they are treated.
The motto of the Senior Scout section is gLook Wideh and this should be reflected in the programme.@A special syllabus of badges has been provided for these older boys leading to the Bushmanfs Thong and the Queenfs Scout Badge.@Those badges qualifying for the Bushmanfs Thong lay special emphasis on nature lore.@It is particularly important for boys at this stage in their lives to find a personal interest in some part of natural history.@They will want tougher adventure than their younger brothers and so scrambling, rock climbing, potholing, caving, sailing, canoeing, horse riding, and so on can all find a place in the programme.
But Senior Scouting is an adventure which must be concerned with the spirit and the mind as well as with the simply physical.@To the boy now entering upon the wider world of the mind there are many attractive avenues to explore.@Let these be explored and discussed.@The more actual discussion that goes on among Senior Scouts, the better.@Youth is the age of gputting the world to rights.h@The Scouter need only see that the facts and initial premises of the discussion are correct and guide thought where necessary.@But talk by itself has only a limited value.@It must be combined with and extended by exploration.@Formal discussions may well have their place, but the informal talks, while hiking or when engaged on some manual work, are the most useful, and these an be followed up by visits to actual places or events discussed.@gLetfs go and see for ourselvesh must be regarded as a practical paraphrase of the Senior Scout Motto, and it may apply to anything from Church to cinema, or from museums to mudheaps.

Where the same old programme, or want of programme, goes on week after week, and month after month, boredom is only natural.@When the Scouter is himself a bit of a boy, and can see it all from the boysf point of view, he can, if he is imaginative, invent new activities, with frequent variations, to meet the boysf thirst for novelty.@Boys can see adventure in a dirty old duck-puddle, and if the Scoutmaster is a boy-man he can see it too.@It does not require great expend or apparatus to devise new ideas ;@the boys themselves can often help with suggestions.@Where a Troop resounds with jolly laughter, and enjoys success on competitions, and the fresh excitement of new adventures there wonft be any loss of members through boredom.@Then outdoor camping\not merely occasional sips of it, but frequent practice so that the boys become experienced campaigners\will hold those of the best type and will give a healthy tone to their thoughts and talks.@I have little use for a cut-and-dried routine system in a Scout Headquarters building, with its temptation to softer living and parlour Scouting.

 THE SCOUT TRAIL @@@@@@@@@ @@@ROVER SCOUT @@@ COMMUNITY LIFE @@ 17{yrs.@ @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ @@@@@@@ 15{yrs.@@@ QUEEN'S SCOUT@@@@BUSHMAN'S THONG @ @@@@ @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ @@@@@ 14{yrs.@@@@@@@@@@@@FIRST CLASS @@@@@@@@@@ @ @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ @@@@@@@@@@@ @@@@@@@@@@SERVICE @HOBBIES @OUTDOOR @@ @@@@@@@@@@@ @@@@@@@@@@@@@PROFICIENCY BADGES@@@@@@ @@@@@@@@@@@ @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ @@@@@ 12{yrs.@@@@@@@@@@@@SECOND CLASS@@@@@@@@@@ @ @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ @@@@@@@@@@@@ 11 yrs. @@@@@@@@@@@@TENDERFOOT @@@ @@@@@@@@ @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ @@@@@@@@@@@@@@ @@ RECRUET@@@@@@@@@@@@@ WOLF CUB @ @@@@@@@@@@@@@@@ 
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@̖̐ɑ΂闼e̊肢CmĂKvB{ɏoĈȗC̖̑SʂɌĂ̑ԓx荇IɔBƂ΍KłBC̗v]͐ł݂BႦΈƂƁ\\̃tBɂ鎦Vl}ŏf錋ʁCVUfƊ댯ƂC]̔铽wd̂ł͂ȂƎv邱ƂCłB @̖͌ǗĂȂB̍lȂ΂ȂȂCȂ猒Nyя@̖Ɗ֘Ačl邱Ƃɂ߂ďdvłB Camps  The camp is what the boy looks forward to, and is the Scoutmasterfs great opportunity.  Large camps are bad from a Scout-training point of view.@Several small camps are preferable to one large one, and each Patrol should be camped as a separate unit from its neighbour.  For every day of training the Scoutmaster should prepare beforehand a programme of what he proposes to do.@Nothing is worse for the keenness and efficiency of the boys than being taken out and then hanging about thinking what to do next.  The camp cannot fail to grip every boy with its outdoor life and taste of the wild, with its improvised cooking expedients, the games over woodland and moor, the tracking, the path-finding, the pioneering, the minor hardships and the jolly camp-fire sing-songs.  Nature Lore.\Above all things the value of the camp is the opportunity that it gives of bringing the boys to live face to face with Nature.@This has its fascination for almost every kind of boy so soon as its joys are made clear to them.  The average street boy going into the country will, so soon as the novelty has worn off, feel bored and will be longing for his cinema and shop windows again.  But when he has learnt to enjoy the material pleasures of camping above stated, and has also had his eyes opened to the wonders of Nature, he will be the young backwoodsman that we want.  It means the presentation to him of the calls and customs of birds and animals, the wonders of the stars, the beauties of the flowers, of the hills, of the sunsets, the wonderful and minute mechanism of the individual specimen whether of plant or mammal, insect or reptile, and its exact reproduction in millions of the same species.  Through these one can cultivate in the boy a closer observation, a new sense of Nature love, a knowledge of biology, a sensible and proper view of sex relation, together with a realization of God the Creator.  And this study of Nature is not necessarily confined to the camp or country surroundings.  Not long ago I pointed out gthat God could be found in a sheepfs trotterh\and I have since discovered that I was thereby plagiarizing an old saying, gOne can find God in a herringfs headh\meaning that, even away from the beauties of Nature as we know then in the wilds one can dissect, say, the sheepfs foot or the herringfs head, to discover the wonderful mechanism which in this specimen merely represents millions of others exactly like it, or one can examine a blue-bottle under the microscope, or the human finger-prints (of which no two are alike), or the human eye and how it conveys impressions of tangible things to intangible thought from which intangible will produces tangible action.  These all form an important step in Nature study.@The dissection of a flower shows how the male stamen fertilizes the female stigma, producing seed which after a period of incubation develops into a living plant, just as under the same law of Nature the bird lays the fertilized egg, which hatches ort its chick after due incubation.@And the parallel operations of the animal kingdom follow in due sequence.  The natural result is the explanation in a rational way of sex matters which have so often proved difficult to deal with.  But here we are in Godfs earth, with these processes of Nature going on around and among us, and all the time, through some manmade rules of etiquette and convention, we are not allowed to mention them\they are gimproper.h  The consequence is that thousands of young lives are being made miserable every year through simple ignorance when they might have been saved by a word in season.  It is this very secrecy that provokes inquisitiveness and wrong impressions, which if dealt with honestly and squarely by elders, according to the understanding of the boy at different ages, there would be far less misunderstanding and unhappiness.  I have never known a boy who was not the better for having the matter put to him frankly and fully, but I wish all Scouters to understand that this can only be done safely by one who has a thorough knowledge of the subject and is in complete sympathy with boyhoodfs difficulties and aspirations.  The parentsf wishes in this matter should be learned ;@fortunately, since this book was first written, a more reasonable attitude towards the whole problem of sex has developed.@The need, however, is as great, for\to take one aspect alone\the suggestiveness of many films shown in cinemas present a new temptation and danger, possibly outweighing those of the former secretiveness.  The problem is not isolated ;@it is linked up with other considerations, of which health and religion are the most important.
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Religion

An organization of this kind would fail in its object if it did not bring its members to a knowledge of religion\but the usual fault in such cases is the manner in which this is done.@If it were treated more as a necessary matter of everyday life it would not lose its dignity and it would give a hold.@The definition of religious observance is purposely left elastic in this book in order to give a free hand to organisations and units making use of it, so that they can give their own instruction in the matter.@In our Association, dealing as we do with those of every faith, we cannot lay down strict rules\if we would.

Religion can and ought to be taught ot the boy, but not in a milk-and-watery way, or in a mysterious and lugubrious manner ;@he is very ready to receive it if it is shown in its heroic side and as a natural everyday quality in every proper man, and it can be well introduced to boys through the study of nature.@I have already shown how camp-life can help towards this end.@The study of Godfs work is a fit subject for Sunday instruction, and is an antidote to Sunday loafing.@There is no need for religious instruction to be dismal.@A. C. Benson used to say that there are four Christion virtues, not three.@They are Faith, Hope, Charity\and Humour.@So also in the morning prayer of Robert Louis Stevenson :\
gThe day returns and brings us the petty round of irritating concerns and duties.@Help us to play the man\help us to perform them with laughter and kind faces.@Let cheerfulness abound with industry.@Give us to go blithely on our business all this day.@Bring us to our resting beds weary and content and undishonoured, and grant us in the end the gift of sleep.h

The following pronouncement by our Council on the subject of religious observance sums up the policy which has guided the Scout Movement from its inception, and has received the approval of the Heads of all the leading denominations of religion in the kingdom.

 @(1) It is expected that every Scout shall belong to some religious denomination and attend its services.@ @(2) Where a Group is composed of members of one particular form of religion, it is hoped that the G.S.M. will arrange such denominational religious observances and instructions as he, in consultation with its Chaplain or other religious authority, my consider best.@ @(3) Where a Group consists of Scouts of various religions, they should be encouraged to attend the services of their own denominations, and Group church parades should not be held.@In camp any form of daily prayer and of weekly divine service should be of the simplest character, attendance being voluntary.@ @(4) Where it is not permissible under the rules of the religion of any Scout to attend religious observances other than those of his own church, the Scouters of the Group must see that such rules are strictly observed while the Scout is under their control.@ @(5) In the case of a Scout not now attached to any Church, the Scouter should endeavor to put him in touch with the Church to which his parents belong or in which he was baptized.@It is, in any case, desirable that every unattached Scout should be brought in touch with a religious denomination.@In this matter the approval of the Scoutfs parents must be obtained.@
A gScoutf Ownh has been found by experience to be a very useful and popular meeting with many Scouts.@A note on this will be found on page 244.
 wҌP @̏͂Ŏ́CX̌ƕ@ɂĂ̂炩̃qgL̂ł邪C͏NNƋɎۂɂ邱ƂɂėłC̏CXɁC悢[_[ɂȂ낤ƂXJE^[̗vo킯łBł邾̌oƒmƂW߂邱Ƃ͔ނ̃f[eBłCɔނ̏Nނ̎ɑς悤C˂΂ȂȂB @XJE^[͍ŏC̒ñfBXgNgER~bVi[̂ƂŋĎgP@ɐFX̕@邱Ƃm̂łBɂĊȅIR[XEbhobWER[XɂĂ̑ǁi{j̃ptbguUEg[jOEIuEXJE^[YvǂŁC𗘗pꂽB ւ̃eXg @XJEg}X^[ĈdĂ邩ǂ肷邱ƂłeXgBB́Cނ^PɂĐɑoꂽNCǂɂȂǂCCłB̓p[hX}[gɂƂChȃLp[ɂȂƂCȐMɂȂƂ悤ȂƂł́C܂s[łB͒PȂiKɂȂBLׂ_́Cޓ_ɓBH@ޓ͐^ɌNŁCKŁCLpȌł邩H@ɂ̂łB Training of Scouters  In this chapter I have given you some hints on our principles and methods, but it is recognized now that beside the actual practice of Scouting with the boys themselves, more is required of the Scouter, who wants to be a good leader to them.@It is his duty to pick up as much experience and knowledge as he can and at the same time, to secure that his boys do not suffer from his experiments.  A Scoter should, in the first place, go to his District Commissioner for information and help and he will find out that there are many different ways in which he can train himself.@Later on he may avail himself of various Preliminary Courses and of the Wood Badge Course detailed in the Headquarters pamphlet gThe Training of Scouters.h The Test of Success  There is only one test by which the Scoutmaster can judge the success or otherwise of his work and that is whether the boys he turns out are the better citizens for the training he has given them.@It is not enough that they are smart on parade, or good campers, or proficient signalers, etc., these are merely steps ;@the point for him to note is, Do they attain the aim ?@Are they really healthy, happy, helpful citizens ?
 @@@ @X̃XJEeBȎSړÍCN̐liiijC̎ܔM̔M̂ԂɂŁC𐳂^ɗŒbČ܂ɂB\\ΏŃCނ̍̂߂ɁCPǂȐlԁClƂȂ悤CŎ炷ł낤B @̂悤ɂ邱ƂɂĉX́C̗͂Lpȕʂɕ邱Ƃ]ނ̂łBSgɘAMɁB @CILɂẮC̍̕ΌƎ댯ɔ̂łB̂łȂΉX̂悤ƐSzĂCȂ镾Qpď̂łB @KɂXJEg^ɂẮCÊ̕ǂɂwǊFCXJEgZgDĂC܂X͊ɐEZ툤̊mȊjSBẲ\́C̉^Ƒ֐ỏ^CK[KCh̍L͈͂ȔWɕ⑫B @ǂ̍łXJEgṔC炩ɑlɌĂ̕dɓw߂_œłB̂悤ɖړIł邩X͕dʂčیZ툤OiCOrȎƂ𑱂邱Ƃł̂łB @킪NPŁC_Ɣ\̗͂ʂɔނ̌𔭓WāCƓIɂ͔ނ̍̌̃eB[vC[i[ZҁjɂCƓɂčsȂ΁CۊԂ̃eB[łCނ̍L͂ɏɑȐ_Ɣ\͂Ƃ𔭓W鍑ɂȂ悤ɂBX͎݂̂ƂƂɂȂ˂΂ȂȂB @łC̊eX̗ŊeX̃vCȂ΁CEɑ傫ȔɉhƍKƂ܂ČʁCiҖ]Ăԁ\\lނ̊Ԃ̕aƑPӁ\\ł낤B To Sum Up  The whole object of our Scouting is to seize the boysf character in its red-hot stage of enthusiasm, and to weld it into the right shape and to encourage and develop its individuality\so that the boy may educate himself to become a good man and a valuable citizen for his country.  By so doing we may hope to take a useful part in bringing strength, both moral and physical to the Commonwealth.  But in developing national aspirations there is always the danger of becoming narrow and jealous of other nations.@Unless we avoid this we bring about the very evil we are anxious to escape.  Fortunately in the Scout Movement we have brother Scouts organized in almost every civilized country in the world, and we have formed already the tangible nucleus of a world-brotherhood.@And the potentialities of this are being supplemented by the wider development of the co-operative sister Movement, the Girl Guides.  In every country the aim of the Scoutsf training is identical, namely, efficiency for service towards others ;@and with such an object in common, we can, as an international Brotherhood in Service, go forward and do a far-reaching work.  In our training of the boy we develop the individual in both spirit and efficiency to be an effective player in his national team of citizen-hood.@Acting on the same principle in the case of a nation we should try to develop the right spirit of efficiency for helping that nation to work effectively in the team of nations.  If each, then, plays in its place, and gplays the game,h there will be greater prosperity and happiness throughout the world, there will be brought about at last that condition which has so long been looked for\of Peace and Good Will among men.@( SCOUTING FOR BOYS@Twenty-Eighth Edition, 1953, p287 - 316)

@@@@@ x[f-pEG
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@@@@@D upg[ VXevɋLꂽtBbvX̃Xsbg (2015.9.26)
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@@@@@F M̏ɑꂽ B-P Xsbg (2015.10.12)
@@@@@G Oɑꂽ B-P Xsbg (2015.11.29)
@@@@@H XJEg^ɑ B-P Xsbg (2016.7.14)
@@@@@I ghƁgāhɑ B-P Xsbg (2016.12.12)
@@@@@J {[CXJEg (1979.12.14)
@@@@@K {[CXJEgHL (1980.4.28)
@@@@@L {[CXJEgvȌЉ (1998.6.20)
@@@@@M stB-P1926N̍uu{[CXJEgEK[KCh^ɂ@v
@@@@@N st1966Ñ[tXJEg̃AhoXp[eB[̊̏
@@@@@O stY iW uREPORT ON WORLD SCOUTINGv(1967) ̏

@@@Ql܂ł
@@@XJEeBOtHA{[CY{27œdqޯ (ɌJ앐F޻)
@@@<http://23.pro.tok2.com/~choraku/scoutingforboys/scoutingforboys.html>
@@@SCOUTING FOR BOYS@(Ji_ ScoutsCan.com EFuTCg)
@@@<http://www.thedump.scoutscan.com/yarns00-28.pdf>
@@@EtJuXEnhubN ްē{A (ްĈ錧A޻)
@@@<http://www.scout-ib.net/09SCIB-DB/WCHB/WCHB.html>
@@@THE WOLF CUB'S HANDBOOK@(Ji_ ScoutsCan.com EFuTCg)
@@@<http://www.thedump.scoutscan.com/wolfcubshandbook.pdf>
@@@̎ {[CXJEg{A@({[CXJEg錧A޻)
@@@<http://www.scout-ib.net/09SCIB-DB/ASM/AidToSM-1.html>
@@@<http://www.scout-ib.net/09SCIB-DB/ASM/AidToSM-2.html>
@@@AIDS TO SCOUTMASTERSHIP (̎)@( ScoutMedia EFuTCg)
@@@<http://media.scoutwiki.org/images/c/cd/Aids_to_Scoutmastership.pdf>
@@@ROVERING TO SUCCESS@(Ji_ ScoutsCan.com EFuTCg)
@@@<http://www.thedump.scoutscan.com/rts.pdf>
@@@SCOUTING AND YOUTH MOVEMENTS(èݸN^)(ScoutsCan.com޻)
@@@<http://www.thedump.scoutscan.com/scoutyouth.pdf>
@@@The Patrol System and Letters to a Patrol Leader (ScoutsCan.com޻)
@@@<http://www.thedump.scoutscan.com/Patrol%20System.pdf>
@@@POLICY, ORGANISATION AND RULES 1938 (BPSA-US ޻)